|1. PREPARATION OF THE SUPPORT SURFACE BEFORE LAYING THE TILES. |
For the correct laying of the tiles, we will make a diagnosis of the support or surface taking into account: the stability, the compactness of the intermediate layers, cohesion, and capacity of water absorption, texture, chemical compatibility and the state of the support surface that will receive the tile adhesive.
The surface to cover must be flat, dry, and free of grease/oil and dust and have the suitable stability.
It is very important to respect the setting times of the material used in the supports so as to avoid possible tensions and structural movements that could be transmitted to the superior layers.
2. FIXING OF TILES.
The laying of the porcelain tile should be made by means of the “fine layer” technique using adhesive cements or resin bases bi-component adhesives.
It is not advisable to use traditional mortar; due to the low water absorption of the tile it does not guarantee the adhesion.
2.1. GENERAL REQUIREMENTS
Generally, C2 type cement adhesives should be used, especially in exteriors and on no conventional supports.
The maximum thickness of the layer of adhesive cement is to be between 5 and 10 mm.
The adhesive is to be applied with an indented trowel to assure the homogeneity the layer.
It is not recommended to dampen the tile with water before laying.
The adhesive should be protected from drying out quickly.
2.2. ENVIRONMENTAL CONDITIONS.
The tiles should be laid when the surrounding temperature, the temperature of the support and the materials are between 5 ºC and 30 ºC.
Wind/Speed not superior to 50 km/h.
Avoid rain when laying tiles outdoors.
2.3. PREPARATION OF THE ADHESIVES.
Is to be prepared according to the indications of the manufacturer, with the suitable tools and clean water.
It is to be mixed with a mixer at low revolutions until obtaining a homogenous, lump free paste. It will be used within the period stated by the manufacturer, and is not to be re-mixed with additional water. The amount of adhesive to be mixed should be calculated and adjusted to the environmental conditions and the speed in which the tiles are laid.
Adhesives in dispersion:
Usually they are commercialized in a paste form and are ready for use
Reaction resin adhesive:
These are to be prepared following the indications of the manufacturer. It is of vital importance to use the components in the stated proportions. It is also recommended the use of a mixer when preparing the adhesive and that the adhesive is prepared within the recommended temperature. (Usually between 10 and 25 ºC)
|2.4. APPLICATION OF ADHESIVE. |
The selection of the trowel depends on factors such as type of installation, flatness of the surface, dimensions of the floor tile and type of adhesive that is going to be used. An adequate amount of adhesive is to be extended with an indented trowel on the positioning surface. It is important that the adhesive is used within the stated time once mixed or open to environmental conditions, after a period of time a dry film will form on the surface of the adhesive and this will harm the adhesion of the tile. The tile is to be laid on the layer of adhesive by means of a sliding movement and applying pressure downwards.
2.5. DOUBLE APPLICATION OF ADHESIVE.
The double application of adhesive should be used when fixing wall of floor tiles in exteriors, the fixing of floor tiles superior in size of 35x35cm or in the fixing of floor tiles for interior use that may be submitted to large dynamic and static loads.
Application: the adhesive is to be applied to the supporting structure with an indented trowel. The adhesive is also applied to the rear side of the tile with a smooth side trowel; the final thickness of the adhesive should not exceed the maximum recommended thickness stated by the manufacturer.
The tiles must be fixed before the dry film is formed on the surface of the adhesive.
2.6. FIXING OF THE FLOOR TILES.
Before commencing with the fixing of the tiles it is highly recommended to open and mix the tiles from several boxes. It is also recommended that a number of tiles be placed on the support surface to verify the finish to be obtained.
The tiles must be fixed with straight and regular spaces between each tile; the width of the space between each tile depends upon the size/format of the tiles to be fixed. It is not advisable to leave a gap of less than 1.5mm between each tile. In no case should the tiles be fixed without leaving a space.
The excess adhesive is to be removed from the tile before setting.
When fixing rectangular tiles in the “brick bond” effect, the tiles should be staggered no more than 1/3 of the length of the tile.
Once installed and while setting the tile must be protected from adverse weather conditions such as frost, it should also be protected from setting to quickly.
Care should also be taken in the manipulation of the tiles to prevent scratches and chipped edges, the material is served with a wax protection, and this protection can be removed with just hot water at the conclusion of the work.
3.1. STRUCTURAL JOINTS.
These must be respected in length and width; they must also respect each of the different layers involved. In the case that they have been done manually, the fillers must have a flexibility of at least 15%.
3.2. PERIMETER JOINT.
These must be as deep as the “base support” or at least as deep as the first solid support and must have a width of 6mm.
3.3. INTERMEDIATE JOINTS.
In interiors, the total surface should be divided with intermediate joints every 40m2 and in exteriors every 25m2. These should penetrate in depth the same as intermediate joints and the width is established with the maximum expected movement.
The tile is to be grouted 24 hours after the tile has been installed/completed. The grout shall be applied as instructed by the manufacturer; a material of type CG2 is generally used. In special cases, such as high chemical resistance is required, a material of type RG2 is used.
For the correct application of the grout it is recommended the use of a grout float.
For the correct installation of the tile it is necessary to proceed with the correct cleaning, at the end of the fixing of the tile. It is important to remove the remainders of the cements, adhesives and grouts with the adequate removing agent. It is important to use a slight acid based detergent diluted with water and maintain in contact with the tile as briefly as possible. NEVER USE CLEANING AGENTS OR DERIVATIVES THAT CONTAIN HYDROCHLORIC OR HYDROFLUORIC ACID.
We advise that before cleaning with any type of chemical based cleaner you should impregnate the whole area with plenty of water to avoid the possible absorption via the grouting materials.
It is not advised the use of chemical based cleaners on areas that have been recently installed as they may create a reaction between the grouted areas and/or the adhesives.
THE COMPANY WILL NOT BE HELD RESPONSIBLE FOR INSTALLED MATERIALS.
WE DO NOT HOLD RESPONSIBILITY FOR THE USE OF FLOOR TILES IN PLACES DIFFERENT TO THOSE RECOMMENDED OR FOR THE INCORRECT USE OF RAPID SETTING ADHESIVES.